A. MassÚ, K Van Frankenhuzen and J. Dedes


SERG Project 1995/09

Canadian Entomologist 132: 573 - 580 (2000)Home

Executive Summary

A droplet-imbibing assay was used to assess the susceptibility of third-instar larvae of the spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana Clemens, to Foray 48B, a commercial formulation of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki containing 12.7 billion international units (IU) per litre. We observed an LD50 of 1.17 IU/larva for third instars, as compared with 3.96 IU/larva for fifth instars. Comparison with previously published data on susceptibility of later instars revealed that third instars were two to three-fold more susceptible to Foray 48B than fourth and fifth instars and about eight fold more susceptible than sixth instars. Vulnerability of third instars to simulated aerial spray deposits was investigated by using potted balsam firs, Abies balsamea L. Potted trees were infested in the greenhouse when the buds were starting to swell, using a density of about one newly emerged second-instar larva per bud. When 90% of the larvae had reached the third instar and 52% of the buds were breaking (4 d after infesting), infested twigs were harvested and sprayed with undiluted Foray 48B in a spray chamber. Spray droplets on the buds measured between 25 and 125 um in diameter, with 80% having a diameter of 80 um or less. A density of 4.2 ▒ 1.0 droplets per bud resulted in spruce budworm mortality of 83.4 ▒ 4.0% and a corresponding reduction in larval density of 86.5 ▒ 3.9% (means ▒ SD, n = 6) after 5 d at 25░C. Results of the spray chamber test suggest that third-instar spruce budworms were able to acquire a lethal dose, despite their concealed feeding habits.